(2023) Sustainability 15, 3, 2295

  • 01/2023
    An extensive questionnaire about Metacognition during Emergency Remote Teaching involving more than 3000 engineering students
    Roberto Mazzola, Matteo Bozzi, Italo Testa, Susanna Sancassani, Maurizio Zani
    Sustainability 15, 3, 2295 (2023) – doi 10.3390/su15032295



By 11 March 2020, the phrase “COVID-19” had officially entered everyday life across most of the word. Each level of education suddenly faced new changesand new challenges. Emergency remote teaching became widespread, and new methodologies to deliver classes and courses were adopted by educational institutions. In this paper, we focus on the impact of the remote learning experience of engineering students enrolled at the Politecnico di Milano. The subjects were recruited from all engineering courses, from the first to the fifth year, and were asked to complete a multidimensional survey.

The survey featured almost 70 items regarding the participants’ perceptions of the challenges of emergency remote teaching as compared with pre-COVID-19 in-person teaching. The questionnaire addressed six dimensions: the organization of emergency remote teaching, subjective well-being, metacognition, self-efficacy, identity, and socio-demographic information. In this paper, we describe the entire survey and discuss a preliminary analysis. Using Cronbach’s alpha test, confirmatory factor analysis, and the t-test, we performed a more in-depth analysis concerning the outcomes of metacognition and self-efficacy.

The data analysis suggests a small, unexpected change in the metacognition strategies. The students, in some regards, improved their learning strategies. Some other answers underline the appreciation of the courses’ organization and the lack of a relationship with their peers and teachers.